|Measurement method(s):||InSAR, GPS - campaign, EDM|
|Duration of observation:||2001 to 2016|
|Inferred cause of deformation:|||
|Characteristics of deformation:||
Tengger Caldera is a volcanic complex consisting of five overlapping stratovolcanoes that are each truncated by a caldera. The youngest and most frequently visited volcano, Mt Bromo, is one of Java’s most active volcano. It has recently erupted on June 2004, November 2010, November 2015 and February 2019.
Abidin et al., 2004 used GPS and EDM methods to monitor the deformation of Mt Bromo from 2001 to 2004. The deformation around Mt Bromo are relatively small with an inflation of 2 cm and deflation of 4 cm before and after the 2004 eruption, respectively, using the Bromo-Batok baseline.
During the observation period of Arbad et al (2016, 2018) from 2007 to 2011, they observed an uplift of 10 cm/yr from late 2010 to early 2011 at Mt Bromo using InSAR. However he stated that the uplift may be systematically caused by an inappropriate selection of reference points or other volcanic activities such as the accumulation of ash-materials.
|References:||'Abidin, H. Z., Andreas, H., Gamal, M., Hendrasto, M., Suganda, O. K., Purbawinata, M. A., ... & Kimata, F. (2004). The deformation of Bromo Volcano (Indonesia) as detected by GPS surveys method. Positioning, 1(08), 0.', 'Arbad, A. P., Takeuchi, W., & Aoki, Y. (2016) Time Series InSAR for Interpretating 5 years Cycle of Mt. Bromo Eruptions in Indonesia by Using PALSAR and PALSAR-2 to Assess Damages Assessment. Polarization, The 7th Indonesia Japan Joint Scientific Symposium (IJJSS 2016).', 'Arbad, A. P., Takeuchi, W., Aoki, Y., Ardy, A., & Jamilah, M. (2018). Surface Deformation Estimation of Mt. Bromo Indonesia Using Time-Series InSAR Analysis of Small Baseline Subset. Teknik, 39 (2), 132-136'|